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The Eighth Apocalypse: Part 2

Original Sin or Original Reptile?

Once upon a reptile, a very long, long time ago in a place not so far away, the human story began. After much fighting for survival, Homo Sapiens came out the winner and all the other Homo species were eliminated. Neanderthals, and other Homo species, were much physically stronger than Sapiens but Sapiens could outwit, use better strategy, and use basic deceit just as the colonizing Europeans have done to most of the world in historical times.

The thing that gave Sapiens the winning advantage is our imagination. (Sapolosky) We can visualize things that don’t even exist and this gave us the ability to use metaphor and symbolism expressed as languages, dialects, and art. This gave us the ability to think in multidimensional ways and is so ubiquitous that we not only take it for granted but it is impossible for us even to imagine being without it.

Our connection to, and experience of, higher dimensions is experienced as imagination, intuition, and desires. A good story can make Sapiens accomplish amazing things by drawing upon our higher mental capacities. Stories of a great king, pharaoh, or warrior fighting dragons and demons and bringing home the bacon makes us giddy. We are a story bound species.

It was these stories that kept hunter gatherer clans together for tens of thousands of years. As Buhner expounds, stories come from our deepest unconscious and stories told, written, and acted out are experienced by the viewer as a form of dreaming. (Buhner1) Stories of great leaders, stories of great warriors and many stories of those strange beings called “Shamans”. All these stories around the camp fire that were spoken, danced, and sung are the basis of our deepest human soul and contained in the right hemisphere of our human brain. (McGilchrist) Even more important is the fact that our heart has even more critical functions than our brain in the realm of intuition, feeling, and understanding. (Buhner2) All these story ideas and feelings have been around so long that they have been distilled into our unconscious as habitual thinking patterns known as archetypes and forms the basis of our fears and hopes as proposed by Carl Jung.

As hunter gatherers, however, we could only deal with about a hundred and fifty people in a group. When people numbered more than that, chaos and anarchy would result and some would wander off and start their own tribe. Animals have done this for hundreds of millions of years and primates still do this. This is the evolutionary basis of tribalism among all people. (McGilchrist)

The concept of tribalism is an archetype and it is in our collective unconscious. Throughout evolution, the appearance of people that were different from our own tribe usually didn’t end very well. It is so ingrained in all human psyches so as to be collective and it is unconscious because certainly civilized people like us don’t need to feel that way anymore and all we have to worry about is our smart phones! Right?

Fundamentalism of every kind is the result of the “us vs. them” archetype in that it insists that they are the only existing truth, chosen people, or reality. They are not willing to consider the commonalities and similarities with other belief systems or cultures. This exclusive tribal thinking is the cause of every war, witch hunt, and genocide throughout history and continues to this day as basic racism.

All of our archetypes are the result of our evolutionary journey and not all of them are bad. In fact, most of them are “good” in that they represent our ability to be social and cooperate in order to increase our chances of survival in very wild conditions. Things changed, however. This is where the Adam and Eve story fits reality if we understand it allegorically.

The Kings and Oligarchs use of Religion to Control the Masses

When fixed agriculture was developed and required a much larger number of people to work together, a new method had to be used to keep people in control. They used the human imagination and the power of belief to keep people on the same page but they used story and imagination to control us instead of inspire us. They used the fear of the gods and personified them as the ruling human kings. They made laws and mandates to support the kings and backed them up with severe punishments for those that would not play their game. Many submitted to this social control because it was still better than hacking through the forest trying find food and then get eaten by a bear. Brainwashing children also really helps to make people compliant.

The “they” are the insecure ones who could not understand their own soul and connection to nature because they forgot the importance of metaphor and took the symbols to be reality as the result of their own mental deficiency as the result of abuse or neglect by their parents and society. They got lost in words, laws, and money as a form of security. Their mother became money and it’s all they suck on for security. (Harari) They have killed their real mother which is nature and have replaced her with a stinky little doll named, “Dollars”

They became literalists and the left hemisphere of their brain repressed the right hemisphere where wholeness is the main logic pattern. (McGilchrist) They also beat us into submission in order to repress our heart feelings and thinking with the heart. (Buhner2) They did this because they lost their connection to there own heart and nature. The main point is that this mind control is still going on and we are still living in a mental paradigm that is over ten thousand years old and we need to change it. We must change it or we will go extinct like all the other species and civilizations that have stumbled into a ditch fawning after the glory of power.

We, in our modern world, have been infused with ideas, stories, and art. The stories we are told to believe and the stories we tell ourself are called “culture”. Our very civilization has been designed to fit the “story” that the oligarchs and their complicit religionists consider most beneficial for social control. Those that were too intelligent and not willing to buy into the scam were rounded up and murdered time and time again. Even to this day people protesting tyranny and oligarchy are rounded up, tortured, and killed in massive numbers. To the oligarchs and aristocracy, common middle class humans are no more than cattle and the poor and impoverished are considered vermin even though the poor exist as the result of greedy oligarchs.

Our imagination and capability of “belief” is, indeed, our strongest mental asset developed from evolution but it has been hijacked by the ruling powers and used against us through the means of literalist fundamentalist belief systems. When stories are so ground into us, they become the basis of our ago and identity, giving up our stories is more painful than death itself. Very many have given up their life to hold onto their ego based stories and even more have killed others to defend them. This is how strong the influence of archetypes are to us.

For all to many, this is the very definition of faith. In my opinion, to be so dependent on ones ego based stories and being unable to expand one’s viewpoint is the definition of spiritual and intellectual death as allegorized in the Adam and Eve story. It is also the basis of psychological repression as defined by Carl Jung. We must find our way back to the forest and relearn our hunter gatherer ways. We must return to the garden and reconnect with our real soul which is nature. Fundamentalist Christianity supposedly sought to save us from our natural beast instincts and used our evolutionary based fears to enslave us. The real motive, though, was power and gold as Cortez exemplifies.

Unfortunately, the few remaining societies that live in respect of nature are being routed out and destroyed for the wealth accumulation of the oligarchs while religions seek to “save” them. The same techniques of religious and political manipulation are used today to keep the majority of people in economic, mental, and literal slavery for the benefit of the ruling class. It’s going all around us every day with increasing intensity.

The oligarchs are massing for yet another major assault on freedom of thought and belief in the world today and it is being done in the name of “God”. The ultimate desire of all the fundamentalist religions is to establish a theocracy following the laws given by their “god” as interpreted and applied by whatever the self-appointed religionist happens to be. Democracy and freedom is an abomination to fundamentalists as Baigent documents.

The Grand Appeal of the Book of Revelation

Yes, we are a story bound species. It’s in our blood, our DNA, it is the very basis of our evolutionary survival which has been, and still is, a traumatic experience. We need salt, we need fat, and we need sugar. In our survival mode those were essential. Cravings for those ingredients are primordial in our evolutionary memory which is our body. But now they are used against us and causing us to die from all kinds of diseases from overuse in the form of “junk food”.

This is what the book of Revelation (BOR) has been turned into–junk food for the mind and used against us. I don’t think this was the intention of the writer of the BOR but after reading Kirsch’s book on the history of the BOR, which I highly recommend, I was astounded. For almost two thousand years the BOR was a complete block buster! It had everything. It had violence, creepy creatures, and was capable of drawing out the hatred and anger of one group against another. It had fear (the salt), social divisiveness (the fat), and very repressed sexual ideas such as women having babies with a dragons writhing around their feet waiting to devour them. Drunken whores riding galloping beasts which was about as good as it got for the religious folks at the time who weren’t reading the real stuff or they were too sanctimonious to admit it. This is the tantalizing sugar as usual.

I should say here, parenthetically, that the BOR is all about sex in the sense that libido is the driving force of the universe expressed as unity. The three Greek words for love is a very brief summary. Eros is the desire for physical unity. Philia is the desire for social/emotional unity. Aga’pe is the desire for psychological/spiritual unity and is represented in the BOR by the bride of Christ as the New Jerusalem. In Jung’s interpretation this is the integration of the conscious and unconscious mind. Repression of the unconscious mind results in deviations and violence of all kinds and is the whole basis of the BOR itself at the ultimate level of mind.

The BOR appeals to our psychological needs by including all three levels of mind. Through our multiple levels of mind we have a sense of higher realties but we can’t grasp them. The oligarchs and rulers know this and they can easily mislead us by dangling propaganda in front of us as suits their purpose. They say, “Go kill that one. Okay, now go kill the other one.” This has happened throughout the ages and occurs in our time as described by Baigent and Kirsch. Popes and kings, presidents and televangelists, they all used the same method. They all tell the miserable masses that the end is coming and they will be rewarded at any moment–it could be any minute! So the miserable masses have slogged along for two thousand years waiting for something to happen and nothing ever has. Well, nothing except two world wars, wars everywhere, and the Sixth Extinction which is the real end of the world. Oh yeah, don’t forget “911” and the ensuing “war on terror” that has been going on for almost twenty years. Some people makes a lot of money off these wars. Who are they? The same ones causing them.

One of the most important properties of the BOR that made it a centuries old block buster was that it was applicable in any age. It was very complex, yet vague, yet it had underpinnings of being specific. The BOR is very much like a dream. It is chaotic, jumps around, and doesn’t make any sense but still feels deep somehow. John had to reach into his unconscious mind, his own memories, dreams, and nightmares where his own shadow lived in cave with the strange serpent of evolutionary history chewing on his heart.

What John drew out of his unconscious were all the archetypes battling each other for a new kingdom, a new heaven and new earth. The real new heaven and earth represents a new consciousness based on a new updated paradigm and the integration of the conscious and unconscious mind. The resolution of opposites. Every person does this when they grow up and learns new things. It’s the revelation of new ideas which always cause “Armageddon”. It is a very traumatic process but children usually survive and grow into stable adults. Societies also do this but many times they don’t survive intact, or at all. Apocalypse means “unveiling” and it also means “catastrophe”. The catastrophe is the result of being unable to assimilate newly revealed ideas and discoveries. The oligarchs and the fundamentalists are striving to preserve their hold on the masses but the masses are beginning to see through the deceit and a big storm is coming.

This is the very reason the BOR became such a hit! Movie producers, authors, and politicians know fear is the easiest and most powerful emotion to invoke. The BOR reaches into the very same places we all fear, dread, suspect, and yearn for and we want revenge from life in general and nature specifically. This is how nature became the enemy in our own mind and we have almost succeeded in destroying it. We still have not figured out, at least many people haven’t, that by destroying nature we are destroying our self. This is the result of the propaganda that has flooded our mind that nature is evil and there is a “god” separate from nature that we need to worship.

What does worship mean anyway? To be a sycophant and bow down to something that will rip your head off if you don’t? That’s not worship. That’s being a sycophant and bowing down to something that will rip your head off if you don’t. In my opinion, worship means to feel with the heart and perceive with the conscious mind the power and the awe and connection to the very source of our existence and life and participate with it for ongoing generations and expanding new ways of thinking for those new generations of humans, animals, and plants. It is an ever growing expansion of knowledge and experience because life is growth with deep inhalations of joy. Otherwise known as “eternal life”.

I know I’m a pagan according to the fundamentalists and a witch according to others. I refuse to accept their valuation, however. It is the fundamentalists that hate adoring and respecting the beauty of nature and refuse to acknowledge their very source from the universe. All I can say is that it’s all evolution and the dumb ones die out. That is the way it has always worked. This is the real Armageddon in my opinion although I realize there are many other levels of application.

Can we survive with our current way of thinking? If not, we will be completely destroyed without remedy and our calamity will come down on our own head. You think the BOR is scary? Study science, evolution, and history. It’s much, much worse than anything the BOR presents and the future is ugly. But it’s not from God. It’s from the greedy and stupid humans that are destroying the planet because of greed and fundamentalists expect God to save them. But God will not save them. God in this sense is nothing but a mental projection of a human mind with a lot of repressed hatred and fear. We’re talk’n nature here, not theology. It is nature that creates and nature that destroys. Nature should get much more respect and it will kill us in unimaginable ways if it doesn’t get it.

The End to End all Ends

For thousands of years the fundamentalist masses wanted the world to end so Jesus would come back. No wonder we are headed for the world ending as the result of climate change and other environmental collapses as the result of unregulated capitalism and sold out politicians and their attendant false prophets. Of course, the fundamentalists won’t even acknowledge climate change is happening. They’re finally getting what they want and they don’t even recognize it! Guess there isn’t enough angels flying around.

Why does this yearning for the end of the world even exist in the mind of humans? The world has ended many times. The last big ending was sixty-five million years ago when the dinosaurs, and most everything else, got wiped out by a comet impacting the earth. The dinosaurs were the infidels and we were the chosen ones! From our very beginnings as a rat-like thing through sixty-five million years of traumatic survival of fighting each other over scraps of food we harbor all that baggage in our body, our unconscious, and our very DNA. The end of the world is an evolutionary based archetype and still reigns supreme in America and is even the basis of its government.

The ideas in the BOR are the basis of world wide policy set by American presidents ever since Reagan made plain his agreement with the fundamentalist literal interpretations of the BOR including Armageddon. James Watt was the Department Interior Director appointed by Reagan and said we don’t need to save trees because the rapture was going to happen soon anyway. Was the real reason Bush attacked Iraq because it was originally called Babylon? John used Babylon metaphorically to refer to Rome but fundamentalists insist on being literal. This is the same reason fundamentalists now suck up to a president that brags about assaulting women and has a notorious record for ripping people off in business dealings. He is giving them what they really want–the destruction of democracy so they can set up a theocracy. A theocracy based on delusions and hate. Baigent discusses all this stuff in much more detail.

The Real Reason for the Wrath of God

For ages the fundamentalists have decried nature as being inherently evil and those that love it were witches and sorcerers. In stark contrast, the BOR says the opposite. In Rev 11:18 it is written, “And the nations were angry and your wrath has come… and the time has come to destroy them which destroy the earth.” (italics mine) I will repeat it for emphasis: “destroy them that destroy the earth”! Yes, the Bible is “green”! In my opinion, the BOR is not about God destroying the “unbelievers” as designated by the fundamentalists. In contrast, it is about God destroying the industrial/military/religious complex that is destroying the earth and billions of people out of greed. Many people are horrified that God would express vengeance as displayed in the BOR and they all recite the lowly Jesus. Yes, God is love but anyone who refuses to save their own child from being eaten alive by a pack of dogs is no better than the dogs themselves. The jealousy of God is expressed in protecting nature and other people who treat others with respect and compassion. At least, that is my take on the subject.

Rev. 4:2-3 says, “And one sat on a throne..and there was rainbow round about the throne in sight like unto an emerald.” An emerald is green! Green is the color of life. In the story of Noah, God drowned all the evil humans but saved all the animals. Obviously the story is allegorical but makes the point that nature is innocent and God delights in nature as discussed in the previous essay.

In Chapter 12 there is the story of the woman that gave birth to a child that the devil tried to eat. After many goings on with the devil trying to kill the woman and her child it is written, “And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened up her mouth to swallow the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.” Rev. 12:16 Why is it that the earth has been condemned as the ultimate evil by the organized church and the fundamentalists when it plainly says here that the earth helped the woman who was the mother of the what appears to be the Messiah?

When women were accused of being witches by men who repressed their own sexuality, the witches were put in baskets and lifted off the ground so they could not touch the earth because it was thought the earth gave them their evil power. How many times has the earth been slandered by fundamentalist religions and accused of being evil? This was and is being done by people who did not understand their own body much less their own mind. The contempt and hatred of women by men is the result of men not understanding their own sexuality or taking responsibility for it. Women were burned as witches hundreds of years ago but the same hatred persists throughout the world This is the psychological repression that explains everything as expounded upon by Jung.

Another interesting thing about this same woman in the story was that she was clothed with the sun and the moon was under her feet and on her head was a crown of twelve stars. (Rev 12:1) Does this sound like a physical embodiment of nature or what? And she, as nature, gave birth to the true Messiah who was saved by the earth. Interesting implications here.

In Chapter 10 another interesting story is portrayed. Some great angel comes into view that is clothed in a cloud and has a rainbow shining around his head who had the face of the sun with feet like pillars of fire. His right foot stood on the sea and his left foot stood on the earth and he growled like a lion and was answered by seven thunders. Any allusions to nature in this scenario such as nature getting really angry of being abused by humans?

Anybody thinks nature doesn’t have any tricks to deal with a maniac species running amuck destroying everything because of greed and stupidity? I can assure you it does and the visions of flying scorpions and locked and loaded locusts ain’t nothi’n compared to what the real biologic world can do. Fundamentalist reject nature but nature rejects fundamentalists completely and nature is the real power.

How anybody can say they love God when they hate nature? It’s like someone believing they love God yet they hate other people that don’t look like them. Serious cognitive dissidence. It’s the archetypes that have been turned against us by the false prophets.
When the seven thunders uttered their voices, John was about to write down what they said but the angel wearing the rainbow told him not to write it down. Write down what they said? What’s to write down when lions roar and thunder booms? What’s to write down when ocean waves crash on the beach as crabs and shrimp chatter and click? Well, pretty much everything, but it’s beyond the ability of verbal linear words to capture. How can one write down the multidimensional nature of nature when words are linear, limited, and two dimensional? This is the very shortfall of literalism and why allegory is essential to present complex ideas.

What could John have heard from the rolling thunders that he was told not to write? Maybe it was the idea that all of life is sacred and equal? Maybe a bizarre idea that the universe is conscious and it is the basis of all intelligence? There’s only one universe and one god that is manifested as an infinite variety of gods and an infinite number of god expressions like sparkles on a diamond. Perhaps recognizing that all these sparkles come from the same light is the ultimate test of faith? Maybe the angel whispered, “Don’t write these things down, John. You will be dead faster than normal. It’s a sketchy crowd.” I don’t know, but I’m guessing.

Then the rainbow angel gave John a little book and told him to eat it. This book was different than the book John was writing in. What was the little book? In my opinion it is the book of nature otherwise known as the Book of Life as discussed later. It is the book of the very history of evolution and struggle of life through millennia. The idea of books keeping this kind of knowledge seems suspect but with our current knowledge of light waves and its knowledge holding power combined with quantum computation we should know that consciousness is everywhere in the natural world
John ate the book and it was sweet to his taste but bitter in his stomach stomach. (Rev. 10:10) Nature is sweet when it’s fun but very bitter in survival mode and we get devoured by animals, diseases, volcanoes etc. One day a volcano erupted and devoured an entire port city with fire and brimstone as Vesuvius did to Pompeii. John very well could have witnessed it. All the horrific things John wrote about he most likely witnessed such as the annihilation of Pompeii, the destruction of many ships, dead fish by the millions from toxic volcanic gasses. He probably experienced the scourge of plaques and voracious wild animals as well. The whole BOR was just a normal walk in the park for John. He most definitely witnessed the insane capability of humans to slaughter each other in the most horrific ways resulting in blood up to the ankles. John was drawing from all the things he had seen in life when he wrote the BOR, in my opinion.

The Repetition of History

While John was relating his book to the time at hand and Rome specifically, the same patterns have been repeated time and time again throughout history. There is the saying, “history repeats itself” and also “Those that don’t know history are doomed to repeat it.” Why does history keep repeating itself? It is partially the result of time and generational ignorance. Those that have gone through the hell of war know the horror of it but each succeeding generation forgets more and more so they are more likely to be brainwashed by the war profiteers to do it all over again.

However, there is more to it than that. The younger generations are intentionally dumbed down by the fundamentalists who demand their children not be educated by the evil secular government Department of Education. They demand their children be a given a sacred education that teaches all the same stories of fighting the infidel, the pagan, the unbelievers, or whatever and the end is near! This is why each age can interpret the BOR for its own time. It’s because the same play book has been used by the kings and oligarch in league with organized religions for the last two thousand years to control the ignorant masses. That playbook is the BOR itself!

Basically, John got it right if it is understood allegorically. It is just like the the book of Genesis describing evolution, the Adam and Eve story, and the entire Bible that the religious world has distorted and twisted everything to serve its own power mongering interests. This is how self-proclaimed prophets like David Koresh and televangelists gain their power.

The Basic Mechanism of Oligarchy and Religion

John saw the Roman dominators as being the quintessential autocrats and blasphemers. The empire was a complete plutocracy and ruled with an rod of iron. Ruling with rod of iron is not necessarily a bad thing. There is always some upstart, some trouble maker who wants to make trouble for fun. People, in general, are not the easiest animal to get along with. People usually want to think for themselves, not be told what to do, and have their own way. Personally, I think this is the ultimate human achievement. Question authority! No cyborgs allowed!

Nevertheless, unfortunately, there is always a need for a security force, laws outlining behavior etc. The tricky thing is avoiding becoming a police state. Rome was most definitely a police state which was fine for many people that were benefitting from the economic structure, willing to play their political games, and were willing to bow down and worship the emperor as a god and do whatever he demanded even if it was to lick his toes. This still goes on today as the news tragically presents. Many politicians have been bought and sold like sheep to the highest bidder and they say “Baa”, or they say, “nah” as directed by their corporate owners.

This was the big problem for John. These two components of oligarchy and religion combined to control people’s thinking constitutes most of the BOR. Politics, economics, and religion. Oh my! That’s the BOR and still applies today. No wonder fundamentalists try to hide their agenda with misleading words. They yell, “antichrist! antichrist!” this and that and sit back fluffing their religious feathers.

Actually, there is no mention of the “antichrist” in the BOR. The term “antichrist” was only used in the letters of another John, the gospel writer John. (1 Jn. 1:18-22, 4:1-30, 2n Jn 7) He used the term “spirit of antichrist”. Antichrist does not refer to a specific person but to a mindset of someone who is the antithesis of the personality of Christ, yet, claims to be religious and even a follower of Christ. John was describing people who claimed to be Christian but really didn’t have a clue and even set about to misrepresent and slander what they supposedly believed. As discussed throughout the New Testament, being a Christian means a lot more than making some decision and then going to church to do their bidding. There are many people walking around claiming to be Christian but are the spirit of antichrist. I didn’t say it, John did as quoted above. Explains a few things.

All the fundamentalist religions claim to be following the only God. All three of them. Baigent goes into great detail on the basics of the tenets of the fundamentalist versions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. I don’t want to be judgmental but all fundamentalist religions are the spirit of antichrist in that their primary teaching is that they are the only one chosen by “God” and if you don’t believe it, they will kill you. Fortunately, all these religions have a version that is not literalist and fundamentalist. Unfortunately, those versions that are not literalist have always been persecuted by the fundamentalists.

Jesus said, “Time will come when they who kill you will think they do God service. Many false prophets shall arise and deceive many: ‘Lo Here! Lo there! This is the real thing!'” ( Mt. 24 ) In Rev. 13:14 it is written, “and he (the false prophet) deceives them that dwell upon the earth by the miracles that he does.” This is the fundamentalist world today in league with the industrial/military/religious complex who want to destroy nature only to acquire more gold to fill their empty dead soul. This is the eighth apocalypse. The eighth unveiling of corrupt politicians with corrupt religionists to destroy the world.

The BOR is very complicated and was a good choice to be the last book of the bible because it is a summary of the whole thing. Edinger goes into a lot of detail how most of the details of the BOR were pulled from the Old Testament. In some ways the BOR is historical because it relates to the time the writer was living in. In other ways it is prophetical in that it predicted the future. But the “future” is merely self-fulfilling prophecy driven by the fundamentalists. Writers like Jung and Edinger reveal another level relating to our very own psychology.

This is not just mere academic banter. Jung knew that whenever the unconscious gets repressed energy gets built up resulting in catastrophe whether it is an individual, a country, or a world. If we did not repress our unconscious we would understand our connection to each other, the whole of nature, and the universe and love it as our self. This is equivalent to loving God with all our heart, soul, and might. The sacred wedding is the integration of the ego with our higher Self.

Read Part 1 here.

Read Part 3. here.

Read Part 4. here.

Baigent, Michael; Racing Toward Armageddon-The Three Great Religions and the plot to End the World; Harper One; 2009.
Buhner1, Stephen; Ensouling Language-On the Art of Nonfiction and the Writers Life; Inner Traditions; 2010; pp. 363-374.
Buhner2, Stephen Harrod; The Secret Teachings of Plants–The Intelligence of the Heart In the Direct Perception of Nature; Bear & Co.; 2004.
Edinger, Edward, F.; Archetype of the Apocalypse–Divine Vengeance, Terrorism, and the End of the World; Open Court; 1999.
Harari, Yuval Noah; Sapiens–A Brief History of Humankind; Vintage Books; 2011; pp. 26-27, 29, 110-209;
Jung, C.G.; The Concept of the Collective Unconscious; The Portable Jung; Penguin Books; 1971;
Kirsch, Jonathan; A History of the End of the World–How the most Controversial Book in the Bible Change the Course of Western Civilization; Harper San Francisco; 2006; pp. 102-135.
McGilchrist, Iain; The Master and His Emissary–The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World; Yale University Press; 2009; pp. 131, 209-236, 428-462
Sapolsky, Robert; Behave–The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst; Vintage; 2017; pp. 557-559.

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